He did start again, waged a war against the Seix Barral adversary, won that victory, then refused to fight another battle and let his efforts fade into abandon. Nonetheless, the warring situation, with its allies, enemies and strategems, and the emotions that situation stirred up, did open up a window of opportunity for moral excesses, such as the translations of Chandler's works discussed above, two of which are plagiarisms, and one of which is translated from the French.
Barcelona: Tusquets Cuadernos Marginales, 2 , From until his death ten years later, he continued to translate, from French, English and Catalan, a very wide variety of non-fiction works, including books ranging from cinema to the environment, and also fiction, including literary works from French by Boris Vian as well as detective novels by the prestigious writing pair of Pierre Boileau and Thomas Narcejac.
Barcelona: Barral Editores, , which was translated in collaboration with Joan Vinyoli. Once classified and pre-selected, Carlos Barral could then look with some sort of idea at what sort of works had been submitted:. However, the vast majority of the text was translated from English, or at least while using the English text in conjunction with the French.
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This is clear in the cases where the French text is missing a segment, or where it summarizes rather freely. The most noteworthy effect of this was an overly localized and temporally embedded text. Joan Vinyoli, and they were both editors. Vinyoli belonged to a group of fellow literarians, including Seix Barral literary advisor Joan Petit, which met on Saturdays for the purpose of discussing literature, politics, philosophy and whatever cropped up. Barral, who occasionally attended these meetings, described them as a group of truncated writers who frustratingly had to hold other jobs.
Barral remembers Vinyoli endearingly as a poet who frustratingly had to do editorial work, and certainly translations, as a means to make a living. Edicions 62, Poesia, 15 , Barcelona, , for which he received the Lletra d'Or Prize in , and his last collection of poems called Passeig d'aniversari , which received such prestigious prizes as the Generalitat de Catalunya Prize, the Ciutat de Barcelona Prize and the Spanish National Literature Prize.
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Though a very accomplished poet, author and editor, surprisingly, the very complete webpage devoted to Joan Vinyoli, mentions only three of his translations, including an annotated scholarly edition of Henschke's Historia de la literatura. Apart from the above-mentioned significant translations, there are many others by Vinyoli "such as those of R.
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Scerbanenco, or L. Clearly skilled in French, and certainly in German, Vinyoli either did not want to or could not translate Chandler's work from English; it is absolutely unclear whether Vinyoli was given the text in French or whether the idea of translating it from French was proposed by him. Marquet in Despite his purported knowledge of French, Vinyoli committed errors of translation from the French Linder Other references to cases of plagiarisms of Spanish translations of English language source texts published in Spain were collected by Sanotyo Though five of the six examples cited by Santoyo record a pattern of plagiarisms from Argentina to Spain, there are examples of plagiarisms of texts first published in Spain which were plagiarized in Argentina 63 ; Merino also reports a case of an Argentinian plagiarism of a Spanish transaltion Santoyo, who has reported plagiarism in Spanish publishing; examined two into-Spanish versions of six English literary classics and found that they could have been perpetuated by translators who signed copied works as their own, and supposedly duped their publishers, or of publishers who appropriated existing translations and printed them with only slight modifications, using real consenting translators or pseudonyms Santoyo went so far as to propose a "recipe" for literary plagiarism: "Take a translation of any foreign work, preferably a dated one, dispensing with the original, of course.
Santoyo believes that plagiarism in the world of Spanish publishing is widespread, and that it would take another scholar no more than half an hour to locate another six plagiarisms , In the case of the Lara copies, I believe there are two possible scenarios: 1. In either case, the role of editor Carlos Barral, who would have ignored, condoned or perpetuated this fraudulence, is unclear. I kept it going until , when I was bitten by the publishing bug.
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I was very motivated by Carlos Barral, another great Spanish editor. I was his sales representative in Argentina, and I told him that in order to be a publisher, I had to have authors, money, and everything else you need to set up a publishing house. He told me to choose whatever I wanted from his catalogue to publish in Argentina under a joint label, Barral-Corregidor. Just imagine how great that opportunity to work with his brand was! Later editions of these translations, starting with Bruguera editions in , brought these translations to a very wide readership at a time of post-dictatorial cultural expansion.
The systematic nature used by Spanish-language publishers of Chandler's works since the Barral Editores editions consists of publishing the whole or nearly whole set of seven novels by Chandler, all featuring detective Phillip Marlowe, in roughly equal proportions of newly-commissioned translations and reprinted texts. The Bruguera Libro amigo, Novela negra editions were prestigiously edited by Juan Carlos Martini, who authored individual scholarly introductions for most titles, and they were well-timed with Spain's post dictatorial cultural and economic expansion. A more ample exploration of the Bruguera editions deserves separate treatment in a future article.
After all, doing this implied moral and legal risks; however, doing this may at the same time have entailed parallel competitive and moral advantages as well. As I mentioned above, the role of editor Carlos Barral is unclear. However, for the sake of establishing an argument consistent with Carlos Barral's background, intentions and personality, I believe that despite the large volume of texts published during , we should assume that he was aware of every text published.
Barral Editores stood to gain a competitive advantage by facilitating massive production in a minimum of time, and plagiarism offered a fairly low legal risk. Barral Editores diminished this risk by plagiarising only one text per publisher, and by changing the translator's name. Barral could have plagiarized two Aguilar publications, for instance, which may have then been worthwhile for the Madrid publisher to exercise its legal rights. By choosing to plagiarize a single text published in a foreign country, the risk of legal action against Barral from abroad in the early s was very low.
All in all the two plagiarisms formed part of a plan to produce, within the Serie Negra Policial a solid canon of Chandler's works in the shortest possible time, using a combination of real translations and a minimum of plagiarisms. The only remaining doubt in my mind is why the text of the Argentinean translation of The Long Goodbye was not revised. For a publisher who prided himself of quality, both at Seix Barral and now at Barral Editores, this seems inexplicable. On a final closing note, I would like to analyze one reason why Carlos Barral may have felt a certain robust brashness towards the weak legality of the Franco regime.
Official government censorship of books was the established law in Spain at the time, but this legal construct did not in other matters such as copyright guarantee legality of texts published in Spain.
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Perhaps, the plagiarisms were Carlos Barral's way of turning up his nose at an unjust system. All of these novels were presented to the censors in , though some took as long as a year before they were approved. The censor who read the book found that a scene portraying police brutality should be removed: "several scenes pointed out on pages 39, 40, 49 and 52, which portray the excessive brutality of a police officer towards a detainee and could prove biased.
Because of this, these passages should be stricken or softened in the Spanish translation of the text.
Barral's attitude towards this particular text is unknown, but he did comment ironically on a case in which a text by Richard Musil had officially been approved by government censors, but that still offered him no protection against prosecution; Barral was made to testify and was absolved, but he made light of the farsical trial, in which it emerged that the book contained apparently subversive homosexual references Barral, Barral relished in sharing his views on the absurdities of the censorship system in interviews with the foreign press; two of these interviews, one with a Swedish reporter and a U.
Conclusion Translations of four Raymond Chandler novels were published by Barral Editores in and over the course of twenty years became so widely used as to consider them "classics" among the Spanish-speaking readership. Though Barral Editores ceased publishing by , other publishers such as Bruguera reprinted these translations throughout the s and 90s; the most recent reprints, by Editorial Debate in the s, appeared in a mainstream literary collection and then in a two-volume set of Chandler's Obras Completas in Barral Editores was founded by poet and editor Carlos Barral, an extremely instrumental figure in the Latin American literature boom of the 's while at Seix Barral.
Uncomfortably forced out of the publisher by Seix family investors in , he set up Barral Editores as a means to continue editing and compete against the company he had formerly owned and worked for. Carlos Barral had to quickly set up a complete catalogue of his own in order to have something to offer the reading public, which he did remarkably efficiently.
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However, the unique war-like atmosphere of Barral Editores' competition against Seix Barral made for a situation in which Carlos Barral probably took moral liberties, such as using plagiarism and translation from a third language, in order to further his aims. Both of these figures were Catalan poets who were also employed in the publishing industry as editors and collaborators.
These "classic" translations are no longer being actively used, since Alianza Editorial Madrid commissioned new translations of the four novels in Unpublished Master's dissertation. Simone Jacquemont and J. Marquet, Paris, Gallimard Folio policier, 35 , . Las colinas del tigre Narrativa Spanish Edition. Verdes valles, colinas rojas 3. Las cenizas del hierro Andanzas Spanish Edition.
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